Cancer is a life-threatening disease in which the body cells divide and grow in an abnormal way.
Cancer is a genetic disease. This means it is a disease caused by changes to genes that control the way our cells function especially how they divide and grow.
Usually, the body cell (somatic cells) divides and grows in a regular manner. The cell division occurs according to the signals and needs. However, these cancerous cells don’t divide in a regular manner and progress very fastly. They don’t rely upon the signals.
Old and damaged cells died after some time, a process called apoptosis. This apoptosis process became disturbed during cancer.
This cancerous cell forms tumors. Tumors may be cancerous or benign The difference is that cancerous cells can spread and attack nearby cells (metastasis) while benign tumors don’t spread to other parts of the body. When the benign tumors are removed they usually didn’t grow again but the cancerous cells may develop.
Signs and symptoms of Cancers?
Cancer is very dangerous because it doesn’t show any signs and symptoms until it controls and spreads to most parts. Lymph nodes are part of the body’s immune system and help capture harmful substances in the body. These nodes are small and can be difficult to find. But when there’s infection, inflammation, or cancer in the body, the nodes can get larger.
The most common sign and symptoms are…
- Swelling or lumps in the
- High-grade fever
- Loss of appetite and nausea plus vomiting
- Painful fatigue
- Weight loss of more than 5kg or
- Body pain
- Bleeding and bruising
- Nights sweats
- Mouth changes such as sores, bleeding pain and
- Headache and
Factors helping Cancer?
It is necessary and important for everyone to know about the risk factors leading anyone to cancer and should discuss them with the health care team. It will help everyone to promote good health.
- Older age
- Tobacco and smoking
- Family history of cancer
- Exposure to
How to diagnose Cancer?
To diagnose cancer in the body, Various types of tests and procedures are formed.
(1) Laboratory Tests
Laboratory scientists usually measure certain substance quantities whether they are low or high. For this various tests are performed e.g Blood test, Urine test, and some other body fluids, However, abnormal lab results are not a sure sign of cancer.
(2) Imaging Tests
These tests create pictures of the inside areas of the body which help the doctor to see whether the tumor is present or not.
These images can be made in several ways.
- CT Scan
- Nuclear Scan
- Bine Scan
- PET Scan
It is a process in which the body tissue is removed for analysis. The pathologist prepares these procedures and reports.
The pathology reports play an important role in the diagnosing of cancer and helping decides treatment options.
The sample for Biopsy may be obtained by the following methods.
(B) With a needle
This process is used to take the body tissue for Bone marrow aspirations, Spirals taps, prostate, and breast biopsies.
(B) With Endoscopy
During endoscopy, the doctors use an endoscope. An endoscope is inserted into the body via mouth or Anus to check the tumors cells. The tumor tissue and nearby tissue are removed.
(C) With Surgery
Two methods are generally used in the surgery.
- To remove the whole Affected tissue only
- To remove the Affected and nearby tissues
How to Cure Cancer?
The treatment of the cancers depends upon the cause.
Some people having cancers will face only treatment but most of the patients have a combination of treatments. These may be with Surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.
Chemotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses adjustable medications to kill cancerous cells.
2. Hormone Therapy
In this therapy, the hormone responsible for the high growth of Breasts and the prostate is stops or slows.
The body tissue is heated up to 113 degrees Fahrenheit to damage and kill cancerous cells and little or no harm to other body tissues.
This therapy focuses to boosts the immune system to fight the disease
5. Photodynamic Therapy
Photodynamic therapy uses a drug activated by light to kill cancer and other abnormal cells.
6. Radiation Therapy
Radiation therapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses high doses of radiation to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors.
7. Stem Cell Transplant
Stem cells transplants are procedures that restore stem cells that grow into blood cells in people who had theirs destroyed by High doses of chemotherapy and radiation.
When use to treat cancer, surgery is a procedures in which the cancer is removed by a surgeon.
9. Targeted Therapy
Targeted therapy is a type of cancer treatment in which we target the changes In cancerous cells that help them grow, divide and spread.