Chronic Disease Management

What is Diabetes Mellitus?

Diabetes Mellitus is a disorder in which the body didn’t produce enough insulin or less amount of insulin which leads to high blood sugar level in the body.

Actually the food we eat is composed of many big molecules likes’ carbohydrates, proteins, Fats and vitamins etc.

These big carbohydrates molecules are made up of smaller molecules. For example Lactose (also called milk sugar) is a Di-saccharine composes of two smaller molecules, glucose and galactose.  Another example is sucrose (Table sugar) is made up of glucose and fructose.  These carbohydrates are broken down in the body by enzymes to facilitate absorption process.

Once the body absorbs these simple Sugar molecules, then the body converts then into glucose molecules. Glucose works like a fuel for the body energy.

This process happens regularly. Sometimes body also converts Fats and proteins into glucose.

When the glucose absorption is start, the rise of blood glucose level is started. God provides us an organ which is called pancreas.  Pancreas is an organ the body just below the stomach. It produces two types of hormones.

  • Insulin
  • Glucagon

Insulin tends to lower the blood glucose level by different means and Glucagon try to increase the blood glucose level.

When we eat something, The food is converted into smaller molecules and finally into gkucose form. After the absorption the blood glucose level is increases.  The body then the send the message to the pancreas to release insulin. 

Insulin lowers the blood glucose level by following means.

  • Increases the uptake of glucose by cells.
  • Glucose is converted into Fats or glycogen (Big Molecule).

Once the glucose is entered into the cells, cells use this glucose to produce energy.  This energy is used by the body for many purposes.

The normal blood glucose level is 70_110mg/dl. However it may be vary depending upon the age, health and family history.

Types of DM

1. Type-1 DM

Type _1 DM is an autoimmune disorder in which the body own immune system destroys the pancreatic cells leads to no or very less insulin production.

It usually occurs in people below 30 however it may affect everyone.

Type_1 DM is also called insulin dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM).

The treatment for Type-1 DM patient is to regularly injecting ?  insulin injection.

2. Type_2 DM

Type _2 DM Diabetes Mellitus is also called Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM).

Some scientists also called as adult onset Diabetes.

It usually occurs after 35 or 40.

In Type_2 DM the body produces enough insulin but the cells is unable to take extra gkucose. This is called insulin resistance. 

Obesity is one the key factor in Type_2 DM because obese person demands more insulin to balcne the blood gkucose level. it  runs in families.

Sign and symptoms of DM

The two types of DM have some similar and different sign and symptoms. 

When the blood gkucose level crosses 170 or 180 , then this is called gkucosurea. The gkucose is excreted in the urine. So the kidney start more work to counteract counteract acidity.

The common sign and symptoms are

  • Increased urination (Polyurea)
  • Increases Thirst (polydipsia)
  • Increases hunger (Polyphagia)
  • Vomiting
  • Nausea
  • Blurred vision
  • Fatigue

In Type-1 DM the ketoacidosis process is happens. In ketoacidosis acids production is increased which may result in death, come etc.

In Type_2 DM 

The Type_2 DM is very dangerous because it doesn’t alarm a body directly. It progresses slowly and gradually. One should note his/her Thirst and hunger.

Complication of DM.

Diabetes damages blood vessels, causing them to narrow and therefore restricting blood flow. Because blood vessels throughout the body are affected, people may have many complications of diabetes. Many organs can be affected, particularly the following:

Brain, causing stroke

Eyes (diabetic retinopathy), causing blindness

Heart, causing heart attack

Kidneys (diabetic nephropathy), causing chronic kidney disease

Nerves (diabetic neuropathy), causing decreased sensation in feet

High blood glucose levels also cause disturbances in the body’s immune system, so people with diabetes mellitus are particularly susceptible to bacterial and fungal infections.

Diagnosis of DM.

There are different tests to diagnose your blood gkucose level.

  • blood glucose measurement by glucometer.
  • Hemoglobin A1C test (HbA1C)
  • Oral glucose tolerance test.

Treatment of DM.

  • Diet
  • Exercise
  • Weight loss
  • Education

In type 1 diabetes, insulin injections.

In type 2 diabetes, often drugs by mouth and sometimes insulin or other drugs by injection.

Weight loss is important for people who are overweight. People who continue to have elevated blood glucose levels despite lifestyle changes, or have very high blood glucose levels and people with type 1 diabetes (no matter their blood glucose levels) also require drugs.

Treatment of high blood pressure and high cholesterol levels, which can contribute to circulation problems, can help prevent some of the complications of diabetes as well. A low dose of aspirin taken daily is recommended in people with risk factors for heart disease. All people with diabetes who are between 40 and 75 years are given a statin (a drug to decrease cholesterol levels) regardless of cholesterol levels. People younger than 40 or older than 75 years and with an elevated risk of heart disease also should take a statin.

Eat Healthy be healthy.

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