covid-19, Corona Virus
Infectious Disease Prevention and Management

What is covid-19?          

Covid-19 is a type of an infectious disease of respiratory illness caused by a SARS-Cov2 Virus. SARS stands for severe acute respiratory syndrome. The disease is emerged in 2019 that’s why we called it Covid-19.  The Covid-19 infection ranges from mild to lethal.

Why we Call it Corona Virus?

By analyzing on Electron microscope crown-like spike is found on the surface of the virus that’s why named as Corona virus.

The official name of Covid-19 and SARS-CoV-2 were issued by the WHO on eleven February 2020.

Who are at most risks?

Most of the people suffering from the corona virus shows gentle to moderate respiratory illness and recover without special treatment however some faced a severe illness and needs an immediate treatment and medical attention. Older people with chronic diseases like cardiovascular problems, Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, chronic respiratory disorders and cancers etc. are more susceptible to the virus and may get infections easily. Young people and children can too easily affected by virus with weaken or compromised immune system.

The other one is People who live in or have recently traveled to any area with ongoing active spread.

How do we get infected with the Corona virus?

The virus enters in to the human body through mouth, nose and eyes by different means. The virus then travels through the nasal passages and reached the mucous membrane of the throat. It attaches to the cells there, begins to multiply. From there the virus moves to the tissue of the lungs and from lungs it is spread to other body tissues.

Sign and symptoms of corona virus?

Symptoms may appear between 2 and 14 days after exposure to the virus. The incubation period of corona virus is 2 to 14 days virus. Most of the Children have same like, but usually milder, symptoms than adults.

The CDC says you may have corona virus if you have these symptoms or a combination of symptoms:

  • Fever or chills above 38 °C
  • Shortness of breath
  • Cough
  • Headaches
  • Muscle aches
  • Body aches
  • Loss of taste or smell
  • Fatigue
  • Loss of appetite
  • Sore throat or runny nose.
  • Diarrhea
  • Persistent pain in chest
  • Inability to wake up from sleep
  • Bluish lips or face happens due to oxygen shortage.

How to diagnose the infections of corona Virus?

An organization CDC (Center for disease control and prevention) has established 2 laboratory tests that can identify Corona virus. The first test for COVID-19 diagnosis that CDC distributed, released in February 2020, is the CDC 2019-Novel Corona virus (2019-nCoV) Real-Time RT-PCR Diagnostic Panel, a test that accurately detects SARS-CoV-2 in respiratory specimens. CDC provides a second method in July 2020, the CDC Influenza SARS-CoV-2 (Flu SC2) Multiplex Assay, which permits public health laboratories to run three tests in a single reaction well.

Once the person exhibit sign and symptoms he/she should immediately diagnose it.

The detection and diagnosis could be done by PCR which the most efficient and commonly used method for the diagnosing of viruses. The sample is taken from the nose or throat with the swab.  PCR works by amplifying the viral genetic material to detectable level.  By PCR we can confirms the active infection.

What is meant by False positive and False negative results?

Sometimes a person is infected with the virus but the results are negative for the test. This is why there is always a possibility of “false negative” and “false positive” tests. The following reasons are behind this.

  •  A person is tested too early.
  • A healthcare provider doesn’t take a good sample/specimen.
  • The covid-19 test itself was not sensitive or specific.

How to protect yourself and others?

Following are some of the guidelines to protect yourself, relatives, friends and others.

  • Get vaccinated.

Getting vaccinated is the best way to prevent yourself and others by infections. The CDC recommends everyone to get vaccinated. This is the best way among all.

  • Wear a mask.

By wearing a fitting mask in crowded or unhygienic area reduces the risks of spreads. By wearing a mask transfer of viruses from infected person to another is minimized. Wearing a mask over your mouth and nose is required on planes, buses, trains, and other forms of public transportation traveling into, within, or out of the country.

  • Maintained a distance of 6 feet

If one of the family members or friend/relatives is sick then avoid the close contact with him/her.  Stay at least 6 feet away from the infected person along with proper wearing of fitting mask. This 6 feet distance could help to protect you from this dangerous virus.

  • Avoid poorly ventilated area.

One must follow the precautions necessary for the prevention of disease. During this pandemic time one shouldn’t visit the poorly ventilated or unhygienic spaces and places. Avoiding the crowdie areas can too minimize the risks of spread.

  • Washing hands frequently.

use a hand sanitizer that contains at least 60% alcohol. Cover all surfaces of your hands and rub them together until they fully dry.

It’s especially important to wash your hands:

    • Before touching your face
    • After using the restroom
    • After leaving a public place
    • After removing mucus or other substances from your nose, coughing, or sneezing
    • After handling your mask
    • After changing a diaper
    • After caring for someone sick
    • After touching animals or pets
    • Before eating or preparing foods.
    • Cover coughs and sneezes
  • Cover coughs and sneezes
    If you are wearing a mask: A person can cough or sneeze to his mask if he has already new mask in his/her pocket. Put on a new, clean mask as soon as possible and wash your hands.

 If you are not wearing a mask:

    • Always cover your mouth and nose or use the inside of your elbow and do not spit.
    • Throw used tissues in the trash.
    • clean your hands with a hand sanitizer that contains at least 60% alcohol.
  • Clean and disinfect surfaces.
    Clean high touch surfaces regularly or as needed and after you have visitors in your home. This includes tables, doorknobs, light switches, countertops, handles, desks, phones, keyboards, toilets, faucets, and sinks.
  • Monitor your health daily
    Monitoring symptoms is especially important where when someone visits the crowded places or going into the office or workplace and in settings where it may be difficult to keep a physical distance of 6 feet.
  • look for fever, cough, SOB, or other symptoms of covid-19.
  • Measure your temperature if symptoms develop.
  • It is advised a professional that a person shouldn’t measure his/her temperature within 30 minutes of exercising or after taking the medicines that could lower the body temperature, like acetaminophen and mefanemic acid etc

Management and treatment of corona virus.

Depending on the severity of your symptoms the treatment may vary from person to person. If you’re not in the hospital or don’t need supplemental oxygen, no specific antiviral or immunotherapy is recommended. Some of the population may also take advantage from an infusion of monoclonal antibodies.

But if someone is in the hospital, he/she may be given an ativiral drug called remdesivir (IV) with or without the oral corticosteroid dexamethasone (or another steroid) or dexamethasone alone if remdesivir can’t be used.

Depending on the severity of your COVID infection, you may need:

  • Supplemental oxygen.
  • Mechanical ventilation (receive oxygen through a tube inserted down your trachea).
  • Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). You continue to receive treatment while a machine pumps your blood outside your body. It takes over the function of your body’s lungs and heart.

The FDA has granted Emergency Use Authorization for three corona virus vaccines. The Pfizer and Moderna vaccines are administered in two doses. For maximum protection. An individuals should take both f them The doses for Pfizer vaccines are administered after  21 days and it’s authorized for use in those age 5 and older. Moderna vaccines Doses are given after 28 days , and it’s authorized for use in those age 18 and older. The third effective option is Johnson & Johnson’s single-dose vaccine, which is authorized for use in individuals 18 years of age and older.

Can vaccinated people still get COVID-19?

Yes, they can still get infection. Vaccines are not 100% effective. In fact, breakthrough cases are expected. The vaccines reduce your risk of infection. After getting vaccinated the severity of illness and death is extremely low and very minor cases.

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